Light waves are generated by electrons moving inside the atom. Since the movement of electrons inside the atoms of each substance is different, they emit different light waves. Studying the luminescence of different substances and absorbing light has important theoretical and practical significance, and has now become a specialized discipline - spectroscopy.
The spectrum directly generated by the emission of an emission spectrum object is called the emission spectrum. There are two types of emission spectra, continuous spectrum and open line spectrum.
A continuously distributed spectrum containing various colors of light from red to violet is called a continuous spectrum. The emission spectrum of hot solid, liquid and high pressure gases is a continuous spectrum. For example, the light from the filament and the light from the hot molten steel form a continuous spectrum.
A spectrum containing only a few discrete bright lines is called a bright line spectrum. The bright lines in the bright line spectrum are called spectral lines, and each line corresponds to light of a different wavelength. The emission spectrum of a vapor of a rare gas or metal is a bright line spectrum. The bright line spectrum is emitted by atoms in the free state, so it is also called the atomic spectrum. To observe the atomic spectrum of the gas, a spectroscopic tube can be used, which is a relatively thin closed glass tube with a low pressure gas inside, and two electrodes at both ends of the tube. The two electrodes are connected to a high-voltage power source, and a rare gas in the tube is glow-discharged to generate a certain color of light.
Observing the atomic spectra of solid or liquid materials, they can be placed in a flame or arc of a gas lamp to burn them, so that they are vaporized and then illuminate, and their bright line spectra can be seen from the spectroscope.
Experiments have shown that the atoms of the emitted light have different spectra, and the atoms of each element have a certain bright line spectrum. Each atom can only emit light of certain wavelengths with its own characteristics, so the line of the bright line spectrum is called the characteristic line of the atom. The structure of the atom and the atomic structure can be used to identify the structure of the substance and the atom.
Absorption Spectrum The white light emitted by a high-temperature object (which contains light of all wavelengths continuously distributed) passes through the material, and the spectrum produced by the absorption of light of certain wavelengths is called the absorption spectrum. For example, let the white light from the arc lamp pass through the lower temperature sodium gas (put some salt on the wick of the alcohol lamp, and the salt will be decomposed by heat to produce sodium gas), and then observe with a spectroscope, you will see the continuous spectrum. In the background there are two dark lines that are close together, which is the absorption spectrum of the sodium atom. It is worth noting that each dark line in the absorption spectrum of each atom corresponds to a bright line in the emission spectrum of that atom. This shows that the light absorbed by the low-temperature gas atoms happens to be the light emitted by such atoms at high temperatures. Therefore, the spectral line (dark line) in the absorption spectrum is also the characteristic line of the atom, except that the characteristic line usually seen in the absorption spectrum is less than that in the bright line spectrum.
Spectral Analysis Since each atom has its own characteristic line, it is possible to identify the substance based on the spectrum and determine its chemical composition. This method is called spectral analysis. When performing spectral analysis, either an emission spectrum or an absorption spectrum can be utilized. The advantage of this method is that it is very sensitive and fast. When an element has a content of 10-10 grams in a substance, its characteristic line can be found from the spectrum, so that it can be inspected.
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